Como Usar Os Pronomes Em Português Europeu

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Em inglês o pronome pessoal You pode ter três opções em português Tu, Você e Vós, o que pode ser confuso e gerar grandes confusões para os estudantes estrangeiros, principalmente os nativos de Inglês.

 

Além disso, o uso dos pronomes é muito importante no dia-a-dia. Neste artigo você irá aprender passo a passo de como usá-los e em que situações, também irá aprender sobre a colocação dos pronomes átonos.

 

 

1 parte: Conhecendo os pronomes

 

Tu é a 2ª pessoa do singular, e tem o pronome oblíquo átono te e os pronomes oblíquos tônicos ti, contigo.

 

Você é usado na 3â pessoa do singular juntamente com ele (he) / ela (she) e tem os pronomes oblíquos átonos o, a, lo, la, lhe e os pronomes oblíquos tônicos se, si, consigo.

 

Vós é a 2â pessoa do plural, e tem o pronome oblíquo átono vos e os pronomes oblíquos vós, convosco.

 

 

2 parte: Como usá-los?

 

A conjugação é sempre feita corretamente, já no Brasil conjugar o tu corretamente pode ser considerado muito formal e só costuma acontecer em algumas regiões.
Tu
Tu é usado por: pessoas amigas, pode ser usado por familiares, colegas, crianças, adolescentes.
Nota: Dependendo da família e dos membros da família, algumas vezes mesmo tendo a mesma idade as pessoas podem sentir-se ofendidas por serem desconhecidas.
Importante: Basicamente, o tu é uma forma íntima de se dirigir a alguém, e também é bastante comum num discurso uma pessoa usar o Tu e outra usar Você, dependendo das situações o pronome pode ser omitido.

 

Você

 

Você é usado com: Figuras de autoridade como policiais, doutores, vizinhos com quem não temos intimidade, pessoas mais velhas, professores, alguns membros da família, empregados etc.

 

Nota: Alguns membros da família usam você com todos os outros membros, mas geralmente usamos com os avós e também pode ser usado com alguns tios. Normalmente os ricos tratam até os filhos por “você”. Antigamente era muito comum os filhos usarem o você com os pais.

 

Importante: Você é basicamente usado com desconhecidos ou como um sinal de respeito; Pode-se ainda adicionar antes do nome Senhor /Dona ou em casos familiares avó, tio etc.. também antes do nome e assim omitir o pronome.

 

Exemplos:

 

  • Vamos lanchar no café do avô Manuel hoje?
  • Dona Maria, como é que vai?

 

Vós

 

Vós é usado nas seguintes situações: com referência a uma pessoa, normalmente tratamento de cerimônia no Português clássico, emprega-se ainda, de vez em quando, em linguagem literária de tom arcaico para expressar distância, valorização social.
Nota: É comum uma pessoa viajar para o Porto por exemplo, e ouvir os adolescentes usarem Vós com os amigos, mas isso não significa que eles usem o pronome o tempo todo.

 

Importante: O uso do vós continua vivo em algumas regiões como no Minho, no Douro e na Beira Interior

 

 

3 parte: Posição dos pronomes átonos no português europeu

 

COLOCAÇÃO DOS PRONOMES ÁTONOS JUNTO DO VERBO

 

São pronomes átonos: me, te, se, o(s), a(s), lhe(s) nos e vos.

 

Em Portugal verificam-se três possibilidades na colocação destes pronomes.

  • após do verbo (ênclise): Vende-me o teu carro.
  • antes do verbo (próclise): Alguém te chamou.
  • no meio do verbo (mesóclise), apenas com as formas do futuro do presente e futuro do pretérito do modo indicativo.

 

Exemplos:

  • ver-nos-emos no verão.

 

Ouvir-se-iam uns aos outros.
ÊNCLISE

1. É a regra geral, nas frases ou (orações afirmativas):

  • Falaste-lhe do filme?
  • Eu vou busca-lo amanhã.

 

2. É obrigatório com o infinitivo regido de preposição a:

  • Começou a contar-nos a sua história.
  • Não fiquei a ouvi-lo mais.

 

Nota:

1. Quando os pronomes são enclíticos, ligam-se ao verbo por hífen.
2. Nestas circunstâncias, o verbo ou os pronomes (o,a, os, as) sofrem algumas alterações. (Ver em Conjugação Pronominal e em Conjugação reflexiva).

 

 

PRÓCLISE

 

1. Nas frases, (ou orações ) negativas:

  • Não lhe mostrou o rosto.
  • Ninguém o viu por aqui.
  • Baixei a voz, para não me ouvirem.

 

2. Nas frases, (ou orações ) interrogativas, iniciadas por pronomes ou advérbios interrogativos:

  • Quem nos chamou?
  • Como lhes dão as regras?
  • Por que as fizeram assim?

 

3. Se o verbo for precedido de certos advérbios (ainda, já, bem, mal, talvez, sempre , só, etc)

  • Ainda lhes disse adeus.
  • Sempre as admirei muito.
  • Só se vê deste lado.

 

4. Nas orações subordinadas:

  • Não lhes falou, embora as conhecessem.
  • se te convidaram, vai.

 

5. Quando o sujeito do verbo é um pronome indefinido, (alguém, qualquer, tudo, todos, etc) ou numeral ou ambos:

  • Alguém me indicará o caminho.
  • Ambos lhe deram os parabéns.

 

6. Nas orações alternativas:

  • Ou a avisamos ou ela se esquece.

 

7. Com o gerúndio antecedido de preposição em:

  • Em o lendo, empresto-to.

 

MESÓCLISE

 

A mesóclise só acontece quando o verbo está no futuro do presente ou do pretérito, (modo indicativo). O pronome é colocado no interior da forma verbal, entre o infinitivo e as formas contraídas do verbo haver, que lhes deram origem.

 

É de uso, regra geral, na frase simples, ( ou oração principal ), afirmativa:

  • Avisar-vos-emos, chegado o momento.

Nota:

Também se usa próclise, sobretudo se o verbo é precedido, enfaticamente, por um pronome pessoal (sujeito):

  • Nós vos avisaremos, chegado o momento.

 

No Brasil, sobretudo na linguagem coloquial é mais comum a próclise.

1. Mesmo a iniciar frases, especialmente com o pronome me:

  • Me dê a sacola, eu ajudo você.

2. Nas frases simples e nas orações principais e coordenadas:

  • Eu o espero aqui, sim senhor.

3. junto ao verbo principal nas locuções verbais:

  • Por que você veio me buscar?

 

 

4 parte: relembrando o que aprendemos sobre os pronomes átonos

 

Imediatamente após o (primeiro) verbo, ligados por um hífen:

  • Deu-me um bolo;
  • Este colar foi-me dado pela minha mãe.

 

No meio do verbo em tempos futuros e condicional:

  • Dar-me-ás;
  • Falar-te-ia.

 

Antes do verbo:

  • Não me lembro;
  • Nunca lhe dei.

Em frases negativas (e, portanto, entre o advérbio de negação e o verbo).

 

  • Quem é que o viu?
  • Porque é que não te vi?

Em frases interrogativas (excepto perguntas sim/não).

 

  • Ainda, já, sempre, talvez, também, só, somente;
  • Ainda o conheço vs conheço-o ainda;
  • Sempre o fizeste vs fizeste-o sempre;
  • Também a vi vs vi-a também;
  • Já o sabes vs tu sabe-lo já;

Em frases que contenham os seguintes advérbios antes do verbo.

 

  • Muito se cansou ele;
  • Alguém o viu;
  • Todos me compreendem;

Em Orações Subordinadas, Orações relativas e Orações cujo assunto é o pronome indefinido (exceto um).

 

Em algumas frases com o prefixo de objeto direto:

  • Uma coisa te peço.

 

Orações infinitivas iniciadas por preposição (exceto a):

  • Para nos ver, sem nos dizer nada, (saber) como te encontrar, (desisti) de os convidar, antes de os vermos, sem os avisares.

 

Em alguns (poucos) casos ambas as posições são possíveis quando os verbos que a regem são semi-auxiliar, ou seja, as adições são verbos no infinitivo sem preposição.

 

  • Pode levantar-se / pode-se levantar.
  • Querem ver-nos / querem-nos ver.
  • Deves ter-te enganado /deves-te ter enganado.

 

Ou na forma de A + infinitivo:

 

  • Começou a chatear-se / começou-se a chatear.
  • Estava a ver-te /estava-te a ver.

 

No entanto, de acordo com os manuais de estilo, é sempre preferível utilizar Com verbos auxiliares ou semi, a posição normal é entre o auxiliar e o verbo principal, com ou sem negação ou advérbios anteriores para o verbo: após o verbo principal na língua escrita (isto é, a primeira forma na lista acima).

Com verbos auxiliares ou semi, a posição normal é entre o auxiliar e o verbo principal, com ou sem negação ou advérbios anteriores para o verbo:

 

  • Ele tem me encontrado.
  • Já tinham me visto.
  • Não queria se afogar.
  • Todos tinham se afogado.

 

Anúncios

La meva presentació

Hola, bona nit!

Em dic Sofia, tinc vint-i-dos anys.
Sóc mestra de portuguès i espanyol des de 2014. Vaig decidir aprendre català, perquè parlo portuguès i espanyol des de petita i he estudiat tres anys francès a l’escola.

Així que crec que serà fàcil i perquè és una llengua romànica.

Fins aviat,
Sofia

Learning Catalan

I decided to focus on my study of Catalan. I have the goal of getting a good level, maybe C1 or even C2 and after taking the exam to get the certification (“taking the certification exam”) . I still do not know how Catalan might be useful in my future, but I will accept any suggestions.

I really like to learn new languages and I chose Catalan because I already speak Potuguese and Spanish and I already studied French for 3 years (I don’t remember (it too)  much) and beyond that (or “and besides”) Catalan isfrom same family so it is easier for me and I can understand some words of Catalan when I read it or when someone speaks.

North Korea

Today, while [I was] searching the Internet, I found an interesting news item about North Korea.

Apparently, until recently, foreign tourists could visit only two subway stations (Puhung and Yonggwang), which generated some conspiracy theories. People said there were only 2 stations and the government hired actors to deceive tourists and pretend the metro system was more busy and extensive than it seemed.
It is now possible to travel around the metro system of Pyongyang. This system is not very big yet: it has only two official lines, all located in the west of the city.
Some say* that there is also a third metro line, exclusive to members of the government and the military.
This is the world’s deepest complex: trains run 110 meters deep and metro stations resemble nuclear bunkers with very thick steel security doors separating the corridors. (I’m really struggling to understand what you’re driving at with the next sentence. This is my best guess)… Typically of North Koreans, it consists of carriages all decorated with photos of Kim Il-Sung (founding leader of the country 1948-94) and Kim Jong-Il (the son who succeeded him 1994 to 2011) and the metro users are prohibited from talking. No running around, laughing and not even a smile or any kind of interaction**. But silence does not reign: the national anthem of North Korea isconstantly playing. (I’m not 100% sure of your meaning in the next sentence, but I guess it is something like….) 10% of population have a mobile phone; something that, until very recently, it would have been impossible to find, because of the government’s fear that its citizens might use them to conspire against it.

Text in Portuguese by a Portuguese newspaper with photos: http://observador.pt/2016/04/21/coreia-do-norte-do-metro-misterioso-do-mundo/

Basic Phrases You Should Know If You Travel To Portugal

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Hero Image (Postcard from Portugal) by F Mira (CC BY-SA 2.0)

 

This article comprises of a list of basic conversational Portuguese phrases that are helpful when you travel to Portugal. Consider this guidebook as you take your wonderful vacation.

 

Basic Phrases

 

English Phrase Portuguese Translation
Yes Sim
No Não
Thank you Obrigado (if you are a man)

Obrigada (if you are a woman)

Please Por favor

Se faz favor

Sorry Desculpa

Desculpe (formal)

Excuse me Desculpe
Hello Olá
Goodbye Adeus

Tchau (informal)

See you soon Até logo
Good afternoon Boa tarde
Good night Boa noite
How are you? Como estás? (Informal)

Como está? (Formal)

I’m fine, and you? Estou bem e tu?

Estou bem e você? (Formal)

Everything okay? Tudo bem?
What is your name? Como te chamas? (Informal)

Como se chama? (Formal)

My name is… O meu nome é…
Delighted to meet you Prazer em conhecer-te

Prazer em conhece-lo (formal)

You’re welcome De nada
Do you speak Portuguese/English? Falas Português/Inglês?

Fala Português/Inglês? (formal)

Help Socorro
I do not understand Não entendo
Where is the bathroom? Onde é a casa-de-banho?
Where is the beach? Onde fica a praia?
Where is the police station? Onde fica a esquadra?
Police Polícia
Hospital Hospital

 

Airport Phrases

 

English Phrase Portuguese Translation
I want to go to the airport, please Quero ir para o aeroporto, por favor
Could you make me a reservation for a flight? Poderia fazer-me uma reserva para um vôo?
I want a round-trip ticket to Portugal Quero uma passagem de ida e volta para Portugal
Direct flight Vôo directo
Flight with a stopover Vôo com escala
When is the flight? Quando sai o vôo?
When does the flight arrive? Quando chega o vôo?
What is my flight number? Qual é o meu número de vôo?
Where can I weigh my luggage? Onde posso pesar a minha bagagem?

 

Hotel Phrases

 

English Phrase Portuguese Translation
I want to make a reservation for a room Queria fazer uma reserva de um quarto
What is the rate? Qual é o preço?
Is breakfast included in the rate? O pequeno-almoço esta incluido?
Is there a place to park? Tem parque de estacionamento

Tem garagem?

Yes we have Sim temos
We do not have Nós não temos

 

Eating and Drinking Phrases

 

English Phrase Portuguese Translation
Where is there a restaurant? Onde há um restaurante?
What is the best restaurant in town? Qual é o melhor restaurante da cidade?
A table for two, please Uma mesa para duas pessoas, por favor
Could you bring the menu? Poderia trazer o menu?
Starter Primeiro prato
Second dish Segundo prato
I want dinner Eu quero jantar
To drink Para beber
Desserts Sobremesa
Bill, please A conta, por favor
Tip Gorjeta
Breakfast Pequeno-almoço
Lunch Almoço
Dinner Jantar
Food Comida
Chicken Frango
Potatoes Batatas
Fish Peixe
Water Água
Beer Cerveja
Juice Sumo
Wine Vinho
Tea Chá
Milk Leite
Cheese Queijo
Steak Bife

 

Shopping Phrases

 

English Phrase Portuguese Translation
Where can I find a store? Onde posso encontrar uma loja?
How much? Quanto custa?
My size is… O meu tamanho é…
I am looking for… Estou a ver…

 

Hero Image (Postcard from Portugal) by F Mira (CC BY-SA 2.0)

 

 

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Respond To A Sneeze (In Portuguese)

The Article in the site

 

 

 

Why do we sneeze?

Sneezing is usually caused by nasal irritation and sometimes by blocking bacteria in the throat, lungs or the passages of the nose. Substances that cause allergies such as pollen, pepper, animal dander, dust, and other particles that cause allergies are generally harmless, but when they irritate the nose, the body responds to them by attempting to expel them through the nasal passages.

 

How should you respond to a sneeze?  What should you say?

 

Different responses to sneezes

All countries have their ways of responding to sneezes.

 

In English, it’s “God bless you.” In German, they say “Gesundheit,” which means “(good) health (to you)”. In French, the response “A vos souhaits” meaning, “for your wishes”. In Spanish, it’s “Salud”, and in Italian, “Salute”. Every country has its own way.

 

In Portugal, we say a few different things:

 

  • Santinho/Santinha
  • Deus te/lhe ajude or Deus te abençoe
  • Saúde

 

Why use these different expressions, and what do they mean?

 

Legends and superstitions

 

The varied responses to sneezing largely originated from ancient superstitions. Wishing well of the person who sneezed is something that probably started thousands of years ago. The Romans would say, “Jupiter care of you,” or, “Save”, which meant “good health to you.” Meanwhile, the Greeks would wish each other “long life”.

 

The phrase “God bless you” is attributed to Pope Gregory the Great, who ruled in the 6th century during the Black Plague. Sneezing or coughing were obvious symptoms of illness, so it became customary to respond to a sneeze with blessings or wishes of good health. After all, if someone sneezed, it was likely they were soon going to die.

 

Some people believed that sneezing meant that the soul was escaping the body through the nose, so saying “health” would prevent the Devil from taking that soul. Others believed the opposite: that demonic spirits used the sneeze as an opportunity to enter the body of the person. There was also a misconception that the heart stopped momentarily during a sneeze and that saying “health” was a way to welcome the person back to life.

 

Santinho/Santinha

 

The expression “Santinho,” which is said after a sneeze, is an appeal to the saints for protection of one’s soul. It comes from the time of the Black Plague, as mentioned above.

 

But as you’ve noticed, there are two expressions here: “Santinho” and “Santinha”. Which do you use? Do women say “Santinha” and men say “Santinho”? Or do you use different words depending on who sneezes?

 

When “Santinho” is used to wish health on someone who just sneezed, it is understood that traditionally it is an adjectival use. Usually, the response to the sneeze is in agreement with the recipient of exclamation. As a speaker, it doesn’t matter if you’re a man or a woman. What matters is the gender of the person who sneezed.

 

However, it is also possible to consider “Santinho” an interjection. When it is used alone, without anything that justifies its use as an adjective, we always say “Santinho”. That’s because interjections are invariable words. When used as an interjection, it’s “Santinho”, regardless of the gender or number of the subject who speaks.

 

In this way, “Santinho” is similar to other cases where words that were originally adjectives lost that function and became interjections. For example, “Pronto”, as in, Pronto, amigos, vamos embora!”

 

Examples and exercises:

 

1. I’m a woman and one girl sneezes.

I say: Santinha!

 

2. I’m a man and one boy sneezes.

I say: Santinho!

 

3. I’m a woman and one boy sneezes.

I say: Santinho!

 

4. I’m a man and one girl sneezes.

I say: Santinha!

 

Now it’s your turn! Do you say “Santinho” or “Santinha”?

 

1. You’re a man in a restaurant with your friends, and a man sneezes.

2. You’re a woman in a shopping mall and a woman sneezes.

3. You’re a boy playing football and a girl, before she can say hello, sneezes.

4. You’re a girl in a cinema with your boyfriend and he sneezes.

 

Deus te/lhe ajude or Deus te abençoe

This superstition was born with Pope Gregory the Great, during the time of the bubonic plague. Like “Santinho”, “God bless you” was something you said to someone who let out a sneeze, because it meant they could possibly be affected by the disease.

 

“Deus te ajude” or “Deus lhe ajude” literally means “God helps you”, but in reality, it’s a wish for your health.

 

Saúde

“Saúde” is an expression used to wish wellbeing or happiness to someone, usually during giveaways or farewells. It’s also used to wish health upon someone who just sneezed.

 

One last note:

When you sneeze once, usually in Portugal we say “Santinho/a”. When you sneeze a second time, we say “Deus te ajude”. If you sneeze the third time (this isn’t so common), then it’s“Deus, te faça feliz”. Of course, this can change from person to person, according to habits or the person’s age.

 

Now if you’re ever in Portugal when somebody sneezes, you’ll know what to say!

 

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A Guide To Brazilian And European Portuguese

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The Portuguese language, also simply called Portuguese, is a Romance language that originated from inflectional Galician-Portuguese, which was spoken in the Kingdom of Galicia and northern Portugal. It was only when the southern part of Galicia became independent(changing its name in 1095 to Portucalense, which became a kingdom in itself by 1139) that the Portuguese language as we know it today began to spread.

 

While the Kingdom of Galicia shrank, Portugal began to expand further to the south in theConquest of Lisbon in 1147. During the period of history known as the Reconquista, the Portuguese language made its way further into Southern Portugal. Later, together with the Portuguese expeditions into Brazil and Africa, Portuguese expanded the language to other parts of the world. At that time, Portuguese was used not only in the cities conquered by the Portuguese, but also by many local rulers in their contacts with other powerful foreign entities. Because the Portuguese expansion was so significant at the time, the Portuguese language also influenced several other languages and dialects.

 

Portuguese is now one of the official languages of the European Union, Mercosur, the Union of South American Nations, the Organization of American States, the African Union and of course, Portuguese-speaking countries.

 

Where is Portuguese spoken?

 

Regions where Portuguese is spoken include Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Portugal,Guinea-Bissau, Timor-Leste, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Macau, Portuguese Guinea, and the Indian state of Goa. This is, of course, to say nothing of the emigrant community, which primarily resides in the U.S., Japan, and select countries in Europe and Africa.

 

The remainder of this article highlights the difference between the different dialects of Portuguese—Portuguese from Portugal versus Portuguese from Brazil.

 

Words

 

Portuguese from Portugal Portuguese from Brazil
Comboio Trem
Autocarro Ônibus
Hospedeira Aeromoça
Pequeno-almoço Café da manhã
Casa-de-banho Banheiro
Gelado Sorvete/ Picolé
Guarda-Redes Goleiro
Camionista Caminhoneiro

 

Phrases

 

Portuguese from Portugal Portuguese from Brazil
Eu estou a comer uma tarte de maçã, mas a minha amiga está a comer uma sanduíche (sandes) mista. Eu estou comendo uma torta de maçã, mas a minha amiga está comendo um sanduíche (sanduba) mista.
Eu estou a escrever um livro e gostaria de ouvir música, mas a minha mãe está a ler um livro. Eu estou escrevendo um livro e gostaria de ouvir música, mas a minha mãe está lendo um livro.
Daqui bocado vou apanhar o comboio para França, tenho um amigo à minha espera na estação. Daqui a pouco vou tomar um trem para a França, tenho um amigo que está me esperando na estação.
O meu carro avariou esta semana, mas o meu primo vai dar-me boleia até ao trabalho. O meu carro quebrou/estragou/deu pane esta semana, mas o meu primo vai me dar uma caronaaté o trabalho.
Eles estão a jogar mesmo mal o jogo de futebol. Eles estão jogando mesmo uma péssima partida.
Eu agora ando a correr todos os dias, creio que ao fim de um mês poderei correr 15km. Eu agora ando correndo todos os dias, creio que ao fim de u mês poderei correr 15km.
O meu irmão quando era pequeno queria sercamionista, mas agora está a estudar para ser enfermeiro. O meu irmão quando era pequeno queria sercaminhoneiro, mas agora está estudando para ser enfermeiro.
André meu filho queres um copo de água oupreferes beber coca-cola? André meu filho você quer um copo de água ouvocê prefere beber coca-cola?

 

Expressions

 

Portuguese from Portugal Portuguese from Brazil
Acordar com os pés de fora = Estar mal disposto logo pela manhã Abotoar o paletó = morrer
À sombra da bananeira = Despreocupado. Acabar em pizza = quando uma situação não resolvida acaba encerrada (especialmente em casos de corrupção, quando ninguém é punido)
Agarrar com unhas e dentes = Não desistir de algo ou alguém facilmente. Carregar nas tintas = mostrar-se exagerado ao descrever ou relatar
Armado até aos dentes = Estar preparado para uma qualquer situação. Cutucar a onça com vara curta = arrumar problema, provocar
Balde de água fria = Desilusão. Dar (um) galho = ocasionar dificuldades, complicações, aborrecimentos
Bater na mesma tecla = insistir. Descascar o abacaxi = resolver problema complicado/desvencilhar-se de uma incumbência ou situação desagradável
Cabeça de alho chocho = distraído, esquecido Dormir de toca ou Dormir na touca = bobear
Cartas na mesa = Factos expostos. Enfiar o pé na jaca = embriagar-se, cometer excessos, cometer um erro
Comprar gato por lebre = Ser enganado. Entrar pelo cano = se dar mal, ficar encrencado
Com a faca e o queijo na mão = Com poder ou condições para resolver algo Matar cão a grito: significa uma pessoa que esta passando por uma situação de grande aperto ou dificuldade, geralmente economica

 

Consultation for Brazilian Portuguese by italki student Arthur)

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To Be Or To Be? Using Ser vs. Estar In Portuguese

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A lot of foreigners have problems with the verbs ser and estar because in English, both words mean “to be”. There is a difference, however, between the verbs.

 

Before we start learning the differences between the verbs, we should learn first how to conjugate them.

 

Conjugating ser

 

eu sou
tu és
ele/ela/você é
nós somos
vós* sois
eles/elas/vocês são

 

*Note: vós is usually only used by people from the north of Portugal.

 

Some example sentences:

  • Eu sou feliz. (I’m happy.)
  • Ela é americana. (She is American.)
  • Nós somos primos. (We are cousins.)

 

Conjugating estar

eu estou
tu estás
ele/ela/você está
nós estamos
vós* estais
eles/elas/vocês estão

 

  • Eu estou doente. (I’m sick.)
  • Nós estamos com fome. (We are hungry.)
  • Vocês estão cansados? (Are you tired?)

 

The difference between ser and estar

 

Okay, so we know how to conjugate the verbs. Now how do we use them?

 

In general, the distinction between the two verbs is similar to that distinction in Spanish. The instances in which we use ser and in which we use estar in Portuguese and Spanish are almost, but not always, the same. Because of that

 

The verb ser is used for conditions or characteristics that are permanent, and the verb estar is used for transitory or not permanent conditions or characteristics.

 

Remember when I said that the verb ser comes from esse and the verb estar comes fromstare? Well, there are two words in English which also come from these two Latin verbs. Fromesse, we have the English essence, and from stare, we have the English status. So, we useser when we want to describe the essence of something, or how a thing is always; and we useestar when we want to describe something’s status, or how a thing is at the moment.

 

Now some examples to make it clear:

 

Uses of ser

 

  • Identification
    • Eu sou estudante. (I’m a student.)
  • Place of Origin/Nationality
    • Tu és de França. (You are from France.)
    • Ela é canadiana. (She is canadian).
  • Physical Traits
    • Ele é alto. (He is tall.)
  • Profession/Occupation
    • Ela é médica. (She is a doctor.)
    • Ela é estudante. (She is a student.)
  • Personal Relationships
    • Nós somos irmãs. (We are sisters.)
    • Nós somos sócios. (We are business partners.)
  • General Statements
    • O amor é cego. (Love is blind.)
  • Numbers and Time
    • Dois mais dois são quarto. (Two plus two is four.)
    • São doze horas. (It is twelve o’clock.)

 

Uses of estar:

  • Physical States
    • Eu estou doente. (I am/feel sick.)
  • Mental States
    • Tu estás contente. (You are/feel happy.)
  • Point of Location
    • Ele está em casa. (He is at home.)
  • Present Progressive
    • Ela está a trabalhar. (She is working.)

 

Using both ser and estar

Portuguese: English:
Ele é louco. He’s crazy. (He should be committed.)
Ele está louco. He’s crazy. (He did something crazy, at that moment.)
A professora é chata. The teacher is boring. (She is always boring.)
O filme está chato. The film is boring. (The statement is the speaker’s impression; it is not necessarily true.)
Eles são magros. They are skinny. (That’s their intrinsic quality.)
Eles estão magros. They are skinny. (They lost a lot of weight.)
Eu sou feliz. I am happy. (That’s how I am in general, a happy person.)
Eu estou feliz. I am happy. (Something happened that made me happy; I am happy at the moment.)
Isso é difícil. This is difficult. (It’s an intrinsically difficult subject.)
Isso está difícil. This is difficult. (It’s more difficult than expected.)

 

More examples of ser and estar

 

  • O sol é amarelo. (The sun is yellow.)
  • O meu nome é Andrew. (My name is Andrew.)
  • Nós somos Chineses. (We are Chinese.)

 

In each of these cases, the speaker attributes to the subjects of the sentence characteristics that are intrinsic to them. People don’t change names that often, or nationality. Those characteristics are part of their identity. Also, things are generally only one color, with a few notable exceptions like chameleons or traffic lights. All these cases use the verb ser.

 

  • A cerveja está gelada. (The beer is cold.)
  • Eu estou doente. (I am sick.)
  • O livro está em cima da mesa. (The book is on the table.)

 

In these cases, the phrases describe temporary situations: beer can get warm, sick people get well, and books can be picked up and carried around. Therefore, these are cases where we use estar.

 

Notice, as seen in the table above, that there are some cases where one could use ser orestar equally well; but in these cases, as expected, the meaning changes when we use one or the other case. Watch:

 

  • A rapariga é bonita.
  • A rapariga está bonita.

 

Both sentences above translate to “The girl is pretty”; however, in the first case, we mean that the girl is naturally pretty, like Anna Kournikova. In the second case, we mean that she is prettier than usual–typically because she put on some nice clothes, got a haircut, or otherwise accessorized herself. She may or may not be pretty normally, but we want to call attention to the fact that she is prettier due to some temporary condition.

 

  • Manuelina está doente.
  • Manuelina é doente.

 

Again, both cases translate to “Manuelina is sick.” However, the first one explicitly says that Manuelina isn’t usually sick, but is right now. The second one means that Manuelina is sick now, was in the past and will be in the future — generally, this has connotations that Manuelina is mentally sick.

 

The location of things

 

When we want to describe the location of things, we use the copula, naturally. In this case, we use ser when something generally can’t move around, and estar otherwise. Spanish speakers should be aware that this is different from Spanish, where estar is used everywhere. Some examples:

 

  • O carro está na garagem. (The car is in the garage.)
  • Os bilhetes estão em cima da cama. (The tickets are on the bed.)
  • Eu estou na estação. (I am in the station.)
  • O Hotel é na praia. (The hotel is on the beach.)
  • A casa é mais adiante. (The house is further ahead.)
  • O castelo é em Portugal. (The castle is in Portugal.)

 

In the first three examples, we have items which are expected to be able to be in a wide variety of places over time, so their location is not intrinsic to them; therefore, estar is used. In the last three examples, we have subjects which are generally immobile, and therefore have an intrinsic location; ser is the correct option then.

 

I hope with this article, no one will have any more doubts about the use of ser and estar.

 

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Days Of The Week And Months Of The Year In Portuguese

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Days of week/Dias da semana

 

The days of the week in English are Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday. Completely normal, but did you know that the days of the week in Portuguese also have numbers and the word feira? Yes, the weekdays in Portuguese havenumbers and also feira. What we call Dias úteis. Sábado and Domingo are fim-de-semana.

 

The days of week in Portuguese are Domingo, Segunda-feira, Terça-feira, Quarta-feira, Quinta-feira, Sexta-feira and Sábado.  Numerically, Domingo can be considered the first day of the week, so segunda is second feira, Terça is third feira, Quarta is fourth feira, Quinta is fifth feira, Sexta is sixth feira, and Sábado can be the seventh day. In normal terms, we just use the numerals in the weekdays, so Sábado and Domingo do not have a number.

 

History of the days of week in Portuguese

 

Weekdays got their names in Portuguese due to the Catholic liturgy at the initiative of Martinho de Dume. He named the weekdays of the Easter holiday, during which no one should work, based on the liturgical names.

 

Latim I Latim II Significado Latim litúrgico I Latim litúrgico II
dies solis solis dies dia do Sol prima feria feria prima
dies lunae lunae dies dia da Lua secunda feria feria secunda
dies martis martis dies dia de Marte tertia feria feria tertia
dies mercurii mercurii dies dia de Mercúrio quarta feria feria quarta
dies iovis iovis dies dia de Júpiter quinta feria feria quinta
dies veneris veneris dies dia de Vênus sexta feria feria sexta
dies saturni saturni dies dia de Saturno septima feria feria septima

 

Sabbatum originated directly from the Hebrew Shabbat devotional, at a time when the Hebrews were originally one people and one culture. The day was the Sabbath, day of rest of the Israelites. For that reason, they flocked to the synagogue more often. This day is Saturday (sábado), the last day of their weekly schedule, this being the day of rest for the Jews.

 

The apostolic tradition fixed the day of rest for Christians on Sunday (domingo) in honor of the resurrection of Christ. In 325 AD, the guidelines adopted at the First Council of Nicaea confirmed the apostolic tradition, and during the reformation of the Roman calendar headed by Constantine the Great, it replaced the name Solis Dies, which means Day of the Sun. This had been how the pagans referred to Sunday (domingo).  It was replaced by Dies Dominicus (orDominicum Dies, Dies Dominica, Dies Domini).  In Portuguese, this means the day of the Lord, which evolved into Sunday (domingo).

 

The day of Sunday, also known as Prima Feria, was the day that Christians met to worship the memory of Christ’s Resurrection, the day of rest for Christians.

 

Portuguese is the only European language in which the days of the week are not associated with the stars, although they were before Martinho de Dume modified them.

 

The first day of the week is given today as a result of the union of two concepts, the main weekly meeting of faith in different religions and beliefs, and the concept of creating a world that is common to almost all of them.

 

For early Christians, Sunday was the first day of the week, but also the spiritual eighth day (8º dia), symbolizing the world created after the resurrection of Jesus. The concept of the eighth day, the Lord’s day, was merely symbolic and had no effect on the seven day week in terms of the calendar.

 

Scientific representation of the weekdays

 

1 (um) Domingo
2 (dois) Segunda-feira
3 (três) Terça-feira
4 (quatro) Quarta-feira
5 (cinco) Quinta-feira
6 (seis) Sexta-feira
7 (sete) Sábado

 

Why do we have feira in the days of week?

 

The word feira comes from the word feria, which in Latin means “day of rest”. The term came to be used in the year 563 AD, after a council of the Catholic Church in Braga, a Portuguese city. The explanation for the presence of the term only in Portuguese is that Bishop Martinho de Braga decided that the names of the days of the week which were used at that time, in honor of the pagan gods, should change.

 

Now you may ask, if feira means a day of rest, why do we use feira in the days of the week and not in the weekend? The explanation is that originally, the order of the bishop was valid only for the days of Holy Week (the one that precedes Easter Sunday), when every good Christian should rest. Afterwards, it was eventually adopted for the entire year, but only by the Portuguese. The only exceptions made by our mustachioed brethren, and then incorporated into the Portuguese colonies, were Saturday (sábado) and Sunday (domingo).

 

Calendars

 

Since 321 AD, Western calendars have started the week with Sunday. The rule was imposed that year by the Roman emperor Constantine who, moreover, established definitively that the week would have seven days. The order was not random. Though at the time the Romans adopted weeks of eight days, the Bible said that God created the Earth in six days and rested on the seventh and, by all indications, the Babylonians also divided the year into sets of seven days.

 

Months of year/Meses do ano

 

Names and history of the months

 

  • Janeiro: The name comes from the Roman god Janus who had two faces and who was a “heavenly porter”. The word ianua means door, and the month of January precisely represents the entrance, or beginning, of the year.
  • Fevereiro: The term comes from the word februm, which means to purify. Historically, a Roman ritual of purification happened during this month.
  • Março: The name comes from the god of war, Mars. The spring begins in this month in the northern hemisphere, which historically was a great time to launch military campaigns.
  • Abril: There are two accepted versions for this month. One is that the name of the month comes from aperire, which means opening, remembering that flowers blossom in the spring. The other is that the name comes from aprilis, a celebration of the goddess Venus.
  • Maio: It was a tribute to two goddesses, Maia and Flora, which were believed to be responsible for the growth of spring and flowers.
  • Junho: It was a tribute to the goddess Juno who was the protector of family and birth. It can also be derived from the Roman clan junius.
  • Julho: In the original Roman calendar, this month had the name quintilius because it was the fifth month. Centuries later, it was renamed in honor of the Emperor Julius Caesar, who had been assassinated.
  • Agosto: In the first Roman calendar, it was called sextilis because it was the sixth month. It was also renamed in honor of the Emperor Augustus.
  • Setembro to Dezembro: September comes from the word septem, which means seven; October comes from octo, which means eight, and so on. Today, the month retains the same position as it did in the Roman calendar.

 

Proverbs

Note: All of the months have more than one, so I choose the most popular and/or the proverbs I like most.

 

 

  • “Em Janerio, um porco ao sol, outro no fumeiro”.
  • “Fevereiro quente traz o diabo no ventre”.
  • “Março. marçagão, de manhã Inverno, de tarde Verão”.
  • “Abril águas mil”.
  • “Maio frio, Junho quente, bom pão e vinho valente”.
  • “Junho calmoso, ano famoso”.
  • “Em Julho abafadiço, fica a abelha no cortiço”.
  • “Lá vem o Agosto com os seus santos ao pescoço”.  
  • “Em Agosto secam os montes e em Setembro as fontes”.
  • “Setembro molhado, figo estragado”.
  • “Em Setembro ou secam as fontes ou alargam açudes e pontes”.
  • “Quando o Outubro for ervilheiro, guarda  para Março o palheiro”.
  • “Novembro à porta, geada na horta”.
  • “Depois que o menino nasceu tudo cresceu”.
  • “Ande o frio por onde andar pelo Natal cá vem parar”.

 

 

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Differences Between Portuguese and Galician

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Portuguese and Galician can be very similar, but I’m sure most of you don’t know why. So, here is a small explanation of it. After the creation of the Kingdom of Portugal in 1139, theReconquista expanded the Kingdom to the south and the Portuguese language was spread to these conquered lands. The Portuguese later discovered Brazil, Africa and other parts of the world. Portuguese was used at that time not only in the cities conquered by the Portuguese, but also by many local governments in their contacts with other foreign powers. The Portuguese language also influenced several languages, especially at this time.

 

Did you know that Portuguese originated from the Galician-Portuguese language spoken in the Kingdom of Galicia and northern Portugal? Yes, it’s true. With my article, you will understand the main differences between these two amazing and pretty languages. Let’s start!

 

Consonant Phonemes

 

Most phonological consonant phonemes in Galician are equal or similar to those in Portuguese. Let’s see the following cases:

 

  1. Galician lacks the Portuguese phoneme [v]. Although the spelling remains the same, the sound component changes to a [‘b]: vaso is pronounced as [‘baso], caverna then becomes [ka’berna].
  2. Galician lacks the alveolar fricative phoneme sound [z]. Words represented by [z] in Portuguese use [s] in Galician. Example: Galician: casa [‘kasa]; Portuguese: casa [‘kaza].
  3. Galician lacks the phoneme palatal fricative sound [Š] of Portuguese: hoje  [‘oŠi]. There is only the deaf palatal [ƒ]: hoxe [‘oƒe].
  4. In Galician, there is the interdental fricative phoneme deaf [q], which is absent in standard Portuguese: cinco [‘qinko] and caza (caça) [‘ kaqa].
  5. Galician has the palatal affricate phoneme deaf [¢], which doesn’t belong to standard Portuguese. It uses ch, the Portuguese spelling that represents the phoneme [f] of chuva. In Galician: chave [‘¢abe] and cachorro [‘ka¢oRo].

 

Nasalization

 

Nasalization does not exist in standard Galician as a distinctive mark. The final nasal consonant syllable does not nasalize the preceding vowel.

 

  • Galician: campo [‘kampo]. Portuguese: campo [‘kãpu].
  • These nasal endings also do not exist in Galician : –ão, –ãos, –ões, –ães, –ã, –ãs.
  • Portuguese: coração, condições, órfão, cidadãos, catalães, irmã, irmãs.
  • Galician: corazón; condicións, orfo, cidadáns, cataláns, irmá (ou irmán), irmás (ou irmáns).

 

The differences are mainly phonetic. Most Galician words have an absence of a hissing sound. In Galicia, there is no opposition between vowels and nasal vowels (although it does exist in parts of the Galician province of León). Galician nasaliza vowels are somewhat nasal, but that does not make a phonetic distinction.

 

The rest of the phonetic differences are the same as in northern Portuguese dialects:

 

  • Pronunciation of ch and tch.
  • Confusion b/v.
  • Clear pronunciation of diphthongs oi/ou (hesitantly as default: loiro/louro).

 

Treatment of nasality is variable in Galician speech, while the Portuguese dialects evolved differently. This gives us the three endings of the Galician-Portuguese:

 

  • -ão
  • -am / -ã
  • -om / -õ

 

The Portuguese nasal diphthong appears sometimes as –ão, while in Galician it has undergone several developments:

 

  • -ão > -án /-ao
    • Galcian: irmán (directly irmao)
    • Portuguese: irmão
    • English: brother

 

  • -ãa > / -án
    • Galician: irmá (directly irmán)
    • Portuguese: irmã
    • English: sister

 

  • -am > -an / -a
    • Galician: ra (directly ran)
    • Portuguese:
    • English: frog

 

  • -om > -on
    • Galician: razón
    • Portuguese: razão
    • English: reason

 

Notice the hesitation between the maintenance of nasality through a monophthongization:

 

  • irmão > irmán (generally west) or maintenance of the diphthong through desnasalação.
  • irmão > irmao (usually center and east), however, there are small areas where there are nasal vowels and diphthongs.

 

Other differences between the common variants are not yet applicable to all dialects. In Galicia, there is the Indo-European diphthong ui or oi replacing the u in Latin tonic Luso-Brazilian Portuguese (there is, however, the dialectal level in Portugal).

 

Differences in three words

 

  • Fruit: Froito / Fruito (Galician) Fruto (Portuguese)
  • Fight: Loitar, loita or Luitar, luita (Galician) Lutar, luta (Portuguese)
  • Listen: Escoitar / Escuitar (Galician) Escutar (Portuguese)

 

These diphthongs are really etymological:

 

  • Fructu > fruito
  • Luctare > luitar
  • Auscultare > ascoltare > escoutar > escoitar > escuitar
  • Analogous to multu > molto > mouto > moito > muito

 

Their loss as the default sound is due to relatinizações in the Modern Age (sixteenth to seventeenth centuries). Luctar, Fructo etc. were changed when the c was removed. A common case is with the Galician and Portuguese word “act,” which was originally actu > auto (auto-da-fé). Galician preserved the archaic pronoun che, alternating with te, which is a pronoun dative complement. Its function is analogous to the pronoun lhe in Portuguese, but it is used with the second person singular.

 

  • Collerche as mans = Colher-te as mãos

 

The plural llelos (lles + os) is also conserved, and not the common form of the Portuguese standard lhos.

 

The Galician groupings enclíticos pronouns are also conserved, due to the existence of a “pronoun of solidarity.”

 

Plural

 

  • Names ending in –n, only add –s: Galician: can, cans (Portuguese: cão, cães), Galician:grandón, grandóns, (Portuguese: grandão, grandões), Galician: nación, nacións(Portuguese: nação, nações), Galician: artesán, artesáns (Portuguese:artesão, artesãos).
  • Names ending in –z. Change the –z to –c in plural: Galician: luz, luces (Portuguese: luzes), Galician: veloz, veloces (Portuguese: velozes).
  • Monosyllables ending in –l. The –l remains in plural form: Galician: el, eles (Portuguese: ele,eles), Galician: ril, riles (Portuguese: rim, rins), Galician: vil, viles (Portuguese: vil, vis).

 

Verbs

 

The regular verbs conjugate in a way very similar to Portuguese. But, there are phonetic and/or naming differences. Some peculiarities:

 

  • The second person plural keeps -d in the ending:
    • Galician: cantades, colledes; partides, andariades; collesedes, partades
    • Portuguese: cantais, colheis; partis, andaríeis; colhésseis, partais
  • The first and second person plurals receive a tonic accent on the ending: andabamos, andabades; colliamos, colliades; partiamos, partiades; collerades, partiredes; andasedes (andávamos, andáveis; colhíamos, colhíeis; partíamos, partíeis; colhereis; partireis; andásseis)
  • The second person singular past tense of the indicative uses the ending -ches: andaches, colliches, partiches (andaste, colheste, partiste), enquanto na 2a do plural do mesmo tempo e modo essa desinência é -stes: andastes, collestes, partistes (andastes, colhestes, partistes)
  • The first person singular preterite indicative of the second and third conjugations have –n in the ending:
    • Galician: collín, partín
    • Portuguese: colhi, parti

 

Changes in verb conjugations:

 

  • Eu son vs. Eu sou
  • Vós sodes vs. Vós sois
  • Eles son vs. Eles são
  • Eles falaron vs. Eles falaram

 

Eu fun = Eu fui

 

Galician systematically nasalizes the first person of anti past tenses:

 

  • Collín = colhi
  • Estiven = estive
  • Daí fui > fuin > fun

 

Other Differences

 

Accent Graphic

 

The graphic accentuation of normative Galician does not correspond in large part to Portuguese. It’s closer to the Spanish system.

 

  • The accentuation of oxítonas occurs in all vowels, even if they are followed by -n, -s ou -ns:mazá, alí, champú, ninguén, corazón, corazóns latíns, comúns.
  • The tonic accent of the vowels i, and u is on hiatus in all instances, unlike what happens in Portuguese: María, túa, aínda, sabía, xuício, baúl. Why not accentuate paroxitonefollowed diphthong: sabia (sábia), carie (cárie), consecuencia (consequência).

 

Archaisms

 

The comparative ca ([do] que), in latin qua > ca, is followed by the dative pronoun and not the personal: máis alto ca min = mais alto que eu.

 

Castillianisms in Galician

 

These are numerous, especially in technical or exotic vocabulary. This is due to the situation of diglossia Galician/Spanish Galicia.

 

Castelhanismos in Portuguese

 

Certain words of Castilian origin were introduced in Portuguese, while the original form was also preserved in Galician: penha, repolho, castelhano, menino, frente às correspondentes galegas pena, repolo, castelán, meniño.

 

Syntax

 

The syntax of Galician coincides almost entirely with Portuguese. A striking difference is the enclitic pronouns of the future, the present, and the past tense of the indicative: encontrarse (encontrar-se-á), esperaríanos (esperar-nos-ia).

 

“The similarity between Portuguese and Galician cultures is striking and noticeable, to the point that many scholars do not identify a clear difference between the two brotherly peoples. Regarding the language, for example, it is known that the Portuguese and Galician languages share a relatively recent common origin in Galician-Portuguese and many linguists still consider contemporary Galician and Portuguese contemporaries as two dialects of the same language, what currently claims the reintegracionista movement.”

 

I hope that my article has removed all doubts between these two languages and now you can write both without mixing them.

 

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